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Struvite Urolithiasis

This urinary stone condition, particularly prevalent in cats, is prevented and reversed with a diet that generates an acid urine. Starch-based diets tend to generate an alkaline urine which precipitates struvite stones. High protein diets (such as Epigen™) generate an acid urine.

• "…Starch and fiber in diets potentially stimulate formation of struvite crystals. Hence, reducing dietary carbohydrate is desirable to prevent struvite urolith formation..." Funaba, M., et al. Evaluation of effects of dietary carbohydrate on formation of struvite crystals in urine and macromineral balance in clinically normal cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65 (2), 138-142, 2004.
• “…urinary pH and struvite activity product were higher in the starch group…urinary concentrations of HCL-insoluble sediment were higher in the starch group…starch in diets potentially stimulates formation of struvite crystals..reducing dietary carbohydrate is desirable to prevent struvite urolith formation…” Funaba, M., et al. Evaluation of effects of dietary carbohydrate on formation of struvite crystals in urine and macromineral balance in clinically normal cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65 (2), 138-142, 2004.
• “…high-protein diets have potential ability to increase solubility of struvite crystals.”Funaba, M., et al. Effects of a high-protein diet on mineral metabolism and struvite activity product in clinically normal cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 57 (12), 1726-1732, 1996.
• “…struvite crystal formation is largely a function of urinary pH.” Finke, M.D., and B.A. Litzenberger. Effect of food intake on urine pH of cats. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 33 (6), 261-265, 2008.
• “…urine pH is a more important controller of struvite precipitation than mineral intake.” Tarttelin, M.F. Feline struvite urolithiasis: factors affecting urine pH may be more important than magnesium levels in food. The Veterinary Record, 121 (10), 2270230, 1987.
• “Diet is an important factor involved in the creation of struvite uroliths in ferrets…urine pH should be acidic if the species is receiving a high-protein, meat-based diet…struvite urolithiasis is rare in ferrets fed a high-quality cat food which is based on animal protein…struvite urolithiasis is a frequent condition in ferrets that are fed dog or cat food with a low content of protein…” Angel-Caraza, J. Del., et al. Mixed urolith (struvite and calcium oxalate) in a ferret (Mustela purorious furo). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 20 (5), 682-683, 2008.

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